Zhejiang Sankai Mechanical and Electrical Co., Ltd

Motor

What is Motor

 

 

An electric motor is a device used to convert electricity into mechanical energy—opposite to an electric generator. They operate using principles of electromagnetism, which shows that a force is applied when an electric current is present in a magnetic field. An electric motor is an electric machine that converts electrical energy to mechanical energy. Most electric motors work via the interaction of the motor magnetic field and electrical current in a wound wire to produce force in the manner of torque supplied on the motor shaft. An electrical generator is identical mechanically to an electrical motor but functions with a reversed flow of energy, converting mechanical power to electrical power.

 

Advantages of Motor

Efficiency

Efficiency is one of the biggest advantages of electric motors. Electric motors will typically convert more than twice the amount of electrical energy into mechanical energy, or motion, than traditional internal combustion engines. An electric motor generates torque by electric current and magnetic fields, whereas an ICE motor takes a longer amount of time to combust fuel and turn the crankshaft (in a vehicle). An electric motor can generate full torque when accelerating from a standstill, propelling ahead much faster and more efficiently than an ICE.

Environmental and health benefits

There is no doubt that electric powered vehicles emit far less pollutants into the atmosphere than their combustion engine powered counterparts. For example, on average, an electric vehicle will emit around half as much carbon dioxide as an ICE vehicle, when considering its entire carbon footprint. Reducing emissions and creating a less polluted environment are clear benefits of electric powered motors, and as time and technology advance, they will most certainly become increasingly favourable over those that burn fuel.

 

Cost effectiveness

Whilst the initial purchase price of many EV's is currently higher than that of their ICE counterparts, the running and maintenance costs are clearly much less. Electricity is of course not free, so factoring in the energy bill is a good idea if the car is to be charged at home, and users can benefit from many power providers offering free or heavily reduced power pricing periods overnight. The cost of electricity use can be further reduced at home by using renewable energy sources like solar panels. Charging stations in public places are free in many parts of New Zealand and around the world, while others require a small fee, and as more options for charging are introduced, costs could be reduced further.

Regenerative braking

The process of regenerative braking in an electric motor has several advantages. Regenerative braking recaptures kinetic energy largely lost as heat during braking and converts it back into electrical power in order to charge the battery. This in turn can potentially extend the driving range, meaning less time charging and more time moving. Regenerative braking also slows the car down, assisting with the job of traditional brakes. This in turn means less wear and tear, prolonging their life so fewer replacements are required.

 

 

 

 

Why Choose US

 

 

Our Factory
Zhejiang Sankai Machine and Electric Co.,Ltd is an integrative and professional manufacturer of power transmission device, which specialize in scientific research, production and marketing.

 

Innovation
Adopting advanced detecting equipment and means, company establishes a quality control system that is in accordance with 1S0900 I: 2015. Products are sold all over the country, exporting to Southeast Asia, Europe, America and other regions. Sankai will continue, as we always do, to strive to become a leader of power transmission industry.

 

Our Products
Our company specialize in High Precision Planetary Gearbox, NMRV series Worm Gearbox, UDL series Stepless Speed Variator, SRC series Helical Gearbox, SKM series Helical-Hypoid Gearbox, Precision Gearbox for Robot Arm and PC Helical Gear Unit.

 

Quality services
Sincerely Sankai determine to provide service of better quality, in-time and fast reply to our clients. And Sankai is looking forward to cooperating with domestic and foreign friends and grow together with our hard work and professionalism.

 

Types of Motor

AC motors

AC Motors are electro-mechanical devices powered by alternating current to produce rotational motion. The rotation provides mechanical work to drive other rotating machines such as pumps. Standard frame sizes are available over a range of powers to ease interchangeability.

DC motors

DC Motors are electro-mechanical devices powered by direct current to produce rotational motion. The motion provides rotational work to drive other rotating machines such as hoists at varying speeds. Certain wiring arrangements can produce strong slow-speed torque, making them suitable as traction motors for locomotives, although these have largely been replaced by variable-frequency controlled motors. Likewise, golf cart motors are steadily being rejiggered from brushed designs to more advanced forms with electronic drives. Standard frame sizes are available over a range of powers to ease interchangeability.

Servo Motor Gear Box
Servo Motor Gear Box

Special motors

General information. Special motors is a wide term at Hoyer. Special is both when a motor is not a part of our standard range but also when if it is a customized designed made for a unique application at one of our customers.

Servo motors

A servomotor or servo motor is a linear actuator or rotary actuator which enables precise control of linear or angular position, acceleration, and velocity. It comprises an appropriate motor coupled with a sensor for feedback of position. It also needs a relatively complex controller, usually a dedicated device designed especially for usage with servomotors.

Construction of an Motor

Electric Motor Bearings
Bearings support the rotor and allow the rotor to spin on its axis. The motor housing in turn supports the bearings.

 

Electric Motor Rotor
The rotor is the mobile part that supplies the mechanical power. The rotor generally holds conductors which carry current and the stator magnetic field applies a force on to spin the shaft. Alternatively, other rotors have permanent magnets, and conductors are held by the stator. Permanent magnets give high efficiency over a bigger power range and working speed.

Electric Motor Stator

The stator surrounds the rotor, and generally holds the field magnets, these are either electromagnets consisting of wound wire on a ferromagnetic core of iron or permanent magnets. These produce a magnetic field that passes through the rotor winding, applying force on the winding. The stator iron core is made of many thin metallic sheets which have insulation from each other, known as laminations.

Electric Motor Armature

The armature comprises wound wire on a ferromagnetic core. Current flowing through wire makes the magnetic field exert a Lorentz force onto it, rotating the rotor, which supplies the mechanical output. Windings are wires which are applied in coils, generally wrapped around a soft, laminated, iron, ferromagnetic core to produce magnetic poles when supplied with current.

Electric Motor Commutator

A commutator is a rotary electric switch which supplies alternating or direct current to the rotor. It periodically reverses the current flow in the rotor winding as the shaft spins. It comprises a cylinder made of multiple metal contact sections on the armature. Electrical contacts named "brushes" consisted of a soft conductor material like carbon pressed onto the commutator. The brushes create sliding contacts with consecutive commutator sections as it spins, offering current onto the rotor.

 

Considerations When Choosing Motors

The considerations when choosing motors include:

Servo Motor Gear Box
Servo Motor Gear Box
Servo Motor Gear Box
Servo Motor Gear Box

Voltage - Is there access to a wall socket or is there a need for a product that can run on batteries. If a wall socket is available, the voltage standard could be 230VAC or more for industrial use.

 

Frequency - Motors operate at 60Hz for products working within the United States, but if a product will be utilized outside of the United States, there is a need to consider a 50Hz option.

 

Speed - Is there a speed range at which the motor must operate. If adjustable or exact speeds are imminent, there may be a need to improve control to the motor.

 

Torque - How much starting torque is needed for an application? Does the torque needed from the motor change throughout the motor's period of function? The worst case scenario torque amount of an application must be considered.

 

Power - When offering specifications, it should be known if the motor will be running on maximum power.

 

Duty Cycle - It is pertinent to know a motor's duty cycle. If the application will be running continuously such that the motor reaches full operating temperature or in short spans for the motor to cool down completely between cycles. Motors that run discontinuously can sometimes use small motors with the same torque and speed, but run continuously.

 

Life Cycle - Applications that operate very discontinuously can at times get on with a short life cycle and high maintenance needs of Universal and DC motors. Applications that operate continuously and need to function for numerous hours without maintenance may need a brushless DC or an AC motor with a very long lifespan.

 

How Is a Motor Made

 

Process 1: Punching
The manufacturing technology of punching is closely related to the labor productivity of motor factory. Cutting and punching methods can be used for sheet production.
Cutting refers to wire cutting method, which can not only ensure the precision, but also shorten the production cycle of the motor. There are 4 kinds of punching methods: single-pattern punch, double-pattern punch, multiple-pattern punch and high speed punch.

 

Process 2: Iron core making
There are various types of iron core in structures and shapes, resulting different manufacturing methods. Generally, the manufacturing methods can be summarized as: riveting, welding, bonding, dipping, sulfur and self-buckling.
Riveting: Fasten the metal sheets with rivets. This manual method is extremely inefficient.
Welding: Multiple sheets are stacked and pressed and then welded by arc welding. This method is good because it has high production efficiency and easy operation.
Bonding: Glue the sheets, then dry and laminate them. This manual method is suitable for small-scale production.
Dipping: The sheet are laminated, and immersed with epoxy coatings. The method has good effects with saving labors and materials.
Sulfur curing: The laminated sheets are cured with sulfur. This method costs little, is highly efficient, and produces lower noise, which is very suitable for mass production.
Self-buckling: In the stamping process, the stator and rotor stamping sheets are automatically buckled and riveted. It’s necessary for scale economic production, indicating the future of overlapping.

 

Process 3: Machining
There are various micro-motors with different structures. The machined parts are mainly the casing, the end cap shaft assembly, the stator assembly, the brush box, the commutator, the magnetic steel and various supporting structures.

 

Process 4: Winding and welding
The winding is composed of coil winding, weaving and typing-in. Welding includes tin brazing, fusion welding, transition welding and pressure welding.
Tin brazing: Soldering iron is the most common. But it easily creates virtual welding that affects the quality.
Welding: Fuse the joint. It’s characterized by high flame temperature, small and concentrated temperature zone.
Transition welding: It’s used for the connection between the motor lead cable and the armature winding. The purpose of the transition welding is to avoid the mess of the motor leads during the impregnation coating and the hardening during baking.
Pressure welding: Weld the lead wire in the slots. It’s usually used for armature windings of DC motor. The process is based on heating and the pressure is auxiliary.

 

Process 5: Insulation treatment
Insulation is an important guarantee for the reliable operation of motor. Fusion, immersion, dipping and filling are the main aspects of insulation treatment.
Fusion: Uniformly adsorb the epoxy powder on the motor core by static electricity, and heat the powder, making it melt to form an insulating layer.
Immersion: Make the insulating coating immerse into the interior of the insulating material, between the wire turns and the iron core slot wall to form a film, so as to improve the heat resistance, moisture resistance and insulation strength.
Dipping: Penetrate the paint into the inner winding by gravity of the paint itself. It’s more usually seen in mass production.
Injecting: Inject the glue into the armature winding and heat it to form an integral. In this way, the armature winding will be firm, insulation reliable and great resistance to moisture, salty fog and mildew.

 

Process 6: Surface treatment
Surface treatment is often used to prevent corrosion, protect decoration or meet certain special requirements for surface parts. The steam blackening treatment is one of surface treatment methods that is seeing a rapid growth in recent years.

 

How to Prepare for a New Motor Install
 

Environment
Keeping your motor in a cool, clean, and in a well ventilated area away from any external sources of vibration, will greatly extend the life of your motor. Make sure that air is not recirculated throughout the room your motor is housed in (without first being filtered), so that dirt and dust particles are not entering your motor and causing overheating and friction issues. Installing an external air filtering system may be a good idea. External vibrational forces can cause issues with the bearings in your motor and shorten their lifespan. Keeping your motor far away from other equipment and any areas of construction is best practice.

 

Foundation
A good rule of thumb is that the foundation for your motor should be rigid and oversized. The larger the foundation, the easier it is to dissipate the vibration and movement of your motor. Concrete is the material of choice when it comes to motor foundations because of its rigidity and vibration dampening abilities.

 

Electrical Connections
The most important thing to remember when supplying power to your motor is to follow all applicable electrical codes and to be sure to lock and tag out all affected equipment before preforming any and all electrical work. Make sure that all connections are tight and sufficiently insulated. You will also need to use supply conductors designed for ASD circuits and a shaft grounding system (or insulated bearings) to prevent damage from stray shaft currents. One of the most important pieces of your motor is the motor nameplate. This will help you verify what type of wiring is needed in addition to many other important details about your motor. NEVER remove the motor nameplate.

 

Alignment and Vibration
When installing your new motor, taking the correct steps to prevent over vibration and ensure proper alignment will help you to avoid large and costly issues in the future. There are many tools available to help you make sure that your motor is in proper alignment with your driven machine. Motors installed with proper vibration mitigation strategies should have vibrations below 0.15 in/sec pk (2.5 mm/sec rms) when measured in the horizontal, vertical, and axial directions at the motor bearings. Once installed correctly, be sure to check vibrational levels and alignment at least quarterly.

 

Baseline Data
Once you have properly installed your motor, testing needs to be done in order to establish baseline values that can be referenced later on; such as whenever you complete periodic maintenance or when you want to replace your motor somewhere down the line with a comparable one.

 

Protective Guards
After installation, baseline testing, vibrational analysis, and alignment have been completed, be sure to place protective guards on any exposed or rotating parts of your motor to make sure that you keep your technicians and employees safe, and keep your motor as clean as possible.

 

Maintenance
Once your motor is properly installed and running, maintenance is very important to preserve and improve your motors performance. Proper maintenance includes performing baseline tests continually at periodic intervals and comparing the new values to the values gathered at initial installation.

How to Maintain Motor
 
Motor Lubrication

It's possible to over lubricate an electric motor, which may lead to internal issues. However, a motor needs lubrication to work at maximum performance level. Every electric motor needs a different amount of lubrication. Lubricating a motor very early or very late may lead to premature tear and wear. Also, manufacturers generally recommend specific lubricants designed for their electric motor.

Bearing Inspection

Motor bearings face most of the tear and wear, so it's natural to expect issues from them from time to time. To prevent bearings from wearing out prematurely it must first be assured the motor is aligned appropriately. Misalignment may significantly stress the bearings. Also, improper lubricants cause bearings to wear out earlier than they must. One common sign a bearing becomes faulty is an overheating motor.

Reducing or Eliminating Vibrations

Every motor vibrates to some extent, but excess vibration may cause severe damage. The moment a motor vibrates more than normal, it must be turned off. The cause is usually a mechanical misalignment, a damaged bearing, or belt tension too high.

Rotor and Stator Inspection

The stator and rotor are the important parts of the motor. Any gaps around these parts must be measured and also with the diameter clearance. Clearance may differ depending on the electric motor and bearings.

Recording Findings

Longevity and wear and tear can't be monitored if findings are not being recorded. Every time a motor is inspected and bearings must be replaced or the belt tension adjusted, and so on, note must be taken. In addition, when lubricant is added to the bearings or motor it must be documented. Upcoming maintenance and expenses can be better anticipated and planned accordingly.

 
FAQ
 
 

Q: What is the definition of a motor?

A: The word "motor" refers to any power unit that generates motion, that is a "prime mover", while "electric motor" refers to a "prime mover using electricity." Input and output to and from a motor. An electric motor is a device used to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy.

Q: What is a motor short answer?

A: An electric motor is a device that turns electrical energy into motion, usually rotation. It changes electrical energy into mechanical energy or kinetic energy (kinetic energy means movement).

Q: Is a motor the same as an engine?

A: People use both interchangeably, but the difference is that motors run on electricity and engines run on combustion. The engine converts various forms of fuels into mechanical force, while the motor transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy.

Q: What is a motor used for?

A: An electric motor is a device used to convert electricity into mechanical energy—opposite to an electric generator. They operate using principles of electromagnetism, which shows that a force is applied when an electric current is present in a magnetic field.

Q: How do motors work?

A: An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Most electric motors operate through the interaction between the motor's magnetic field and electric current in a wire winding to generate force in the form of torque applied on the motor's shaft.

Q: What is a motor example?

A: Example. Ceiling fans, cars, etc. are all examples of motors. In power stations, generators are used to generate electricity.

Q: Why are engines called motors?

A: A motor is a device that imparts motion. Motor and engine are interchangeable in standard English.

Q: How do motors work easy?

A: This simple electric motor works by the magnetic force F = IL x B. The current goes around the coil so that it points one direction in one end of the loop and in the other direction at the other end of the loop. The magnetic field at both of these spots points in the same direction.

Q: Is a generator a motor or engine?

A: The major difference between Motor and Generator is that a motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy, whereas the generator does the exact opposite. The motor uses electricity whereas the generator produces electricity.

Q: Do car engines have motors?

A: Typically cars have both an engine and several (electric) motors. The engine is usually a multi-cylinder Internal combustion gasoline engine and powers the car. The motors derive their electric power from the battery, which is charged by an alternator driven by the engine.

Q: How do I know if a motor is AC or DC?

A: In AC motors, the armature is stationary while the magnetic field rotates. In DC motors, the armature rotates while the magnetic field remains stationary. In AC motors, three input terminals (RYB) are present. In DC motors, two input terminals (positive and negative) are present.

Q: How does a motor work physics?

A: Motors consist of loops of wire in a magnetic field. When current is passed through the loops, the magnetic field exerts a torque on the loops, which rotates a shaft. Electrical energy is converted to mechanical work in the process. Figure 20.23 shows a schematic drawing of an electric motor.

Q: What is the rpm of a motor?

A: RPM is a short-form of Revolutions Per Minute (RPM). It is a unit of rotational/ angular speed that indicates the rate of revolution of the rotor component i.e., the number of full rotations the rotor makes per minute. Simply, RPM is a measure used to describe the rotational speed of the motor's spindle/motor shaft.

Q: Which type of motor is best?

A: AC motors generally have longer lifespans and higher durability than other types of electric motors because they are brushless and only require low power for start-up. This means that AC motors require less maintenance, due to brushes not being worn down and there is a much lower chance of burnout upon start up.

Q: How do motors start?

A: The direct starting (Direct On line, DOL) is the simplest and most cost-efficient method of starting a motor. This is assuming that the power supply can easily deliver the high starting current and that the power transmission components and the working machine are suitable for the high starting torques.

Q: Can a motor generate electricity?

A: A brushed DC motor is appropriate for generator applications requiring a DC voltage output, while a brushless DC motor is suitable for AC voltage applications. If using a BLDC for DC voltage output, a voltage rectification circuit is needed. If using a brushed DC motor for AC output, DC to AC electronics are needed.

Q: How are motors used in everyday life?

A: Applications include blowers and pumps, industrial fans, machine tools, power tools, household appliances, disk drives, and vehicles. Small motors can be found in electrical watches.

Q: Why are motors better than engines?

A: Electric motors also work much more efficiently than internal combustion engines. This means that 80% of electrical energy can be converted into propulsion, whilst only 20% is lost as heat. With a internal combustion engine, on the other hand, only about 25% of the energy generated can be used for propulsion.

Q: Do electric cars have motors?

A: All-electric vehicles, also referred to as battery electric vehicles (BEVs), have an electric motor instead of an internal combustion engine.

Q: Are all motors the same?

A: Though there are different types and configurations of motors, all share the same underlying principles, and the difference lies in the type of torque (Interaction or Reluctance or mix of both) produced, the way the magnetic field is created, and the geometric construction.

As one of the most professional motor manufacturers and suppliers in China, we're featured by quality products and competitive price. Please rest assured to buy motor for sale here from our factory. Contact us for quotation and free sample.

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